Tides Explained

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Tides Explained

Most people grow up thinking that the tides are caused by the moon, and indeed that gravitational 'pull' of the moon is a major factor, as is the gravitational effect of the sun but there is another major factor, which is less often mentioned, and that is the force created by the rotation of the earth itself. 

So the diagram on the right shows how the water on the earth gets pulled into a bulge one way by the moon's gravity and into a bulge on the opposite side by the rotational force of the earth. 

As the earth rotates on its axis once every 24 hours, if the moon stood still then the moon will be overhead and 'underfoot' once in every 24 hours giving (in most places) 2 high and 2 low tides a day, but as the moon is also orbiting in the same direction as the earth revolves it actually takes about 24 hours and 50 minutes for the moon to be in the same place overhead. So the period from one high tide to the next is about 12 hours 25 minutes. 

Tides Explained

Spring Tides

When the sun, moon and earth all line up at new (as in the picture) or full moon then we get the highest (and indeed lowest) tides which are called 'spring' tides (nothing to do with the time of year!). In fact it takes a bit of time for the enormous mass of water to move, so the spring tide will actually occur a couple of days after the new (or full) moon, so the picture on the left is a simplification. 

You can find more about Website Icon moon phases here.

Because of the tilt of the earth on its axis, at the equinox the sun appears to be over the equator and if there is a new or full moon at about the same time then all the forces contrive to create the highest of high tides and if the moon is also at perigee (closest to the earth in its orbit) then that will produce the biggest tides of all. 

Spring Tides

Neap Tides

neap tides explained When the moon is at first or third quarter (you can find more on moon phases here) then the moon and sun are exerting forces from two different directions and the overall effect on the water is less, so the high tides are lower than average and the low tides are higher than the average and we call these low tides 'neap' tides. 
The word 'neap' is thought to have originated from the Middle English Word 'neep' meaning small. 

Rip Tides/Currents

A rip current, often simply called a rip (or misleadingly rip tide), is a specific kind of water current which can occur near beaches with breaking waves. A rip is a strong, localized, and narrow current of water which moves directly away from the shore, cutting through the lines of breaking waves like a river running out to sea, and is strongest near the surface of the water.

Neap Tides

Rip currents can be hazardous to people in the water. Swimmers who are caught in a rip current and who do not understand what is going on, and who may not have the necessary water skills, may panic, or exhaust themselves by trying to swim directly against the flow of water.

Because of these factors, rips are the leading cause of rescues by lifeguards at beaches, and rips are the cause of an average of 46 deaths by drowning per year in the United States.

A rip current is not the same thing as undertow, although some people use the term incorrectly when they often mean a rip current. Contrary to popular belief, neither rip nor undertow can pull a person down and hold them under the water. A rip simply carries floating objects, including people, out beyond the zone of the breaking waves.

The workings of a rip current ar shown in the image on the right, viewed from above:
Breaking waves cross a sand bar off the shore. The pushed-in water can most easily travel back out to sea through a gap in the sand bar. This creates a fast-moving rip current.

Website Icon reference and more information

Rip Tide
A space between the waves indicates 
a rip tide. 




Rip Tide/Currents
Workings of a rip current

Other Factors and Facts

Although the sun, the moon and the rotation of the earth are the major forces involved in creating the tides the local conditions such as the shoreline and the contour of the ocean floor also have an effect. 

Because of this not everywhere has 2 tides a day - there are some places that experience what is known as a double-high water (e.g. Southampton) or double-low water (e.g. Portland). 

The highest tides of all (17m) occur in Canada and after a long running dispute between the famous tides of the Bay of Fundy and those of Ungava Bay on the northern coast of Quebec, the Canadian Hydrographic Service has declared a draw. 

Most people think of the Mediterranean area as being without tides and it is true that the tides there are very small, and can often go unnoticed as atmospheric conditions and headwinds can attenuate the effect of these tides making them difficult to see. 

The very smallest tidal ranges (actually 0) are found in the Adriatic and South of Sicily.
text and images courtesy of Astronomy Know How

Video - How Do the Tides Work

Phases of the Moon

The revolution of the Moon around the Earth makes the Moon appear as if it is changing shape in the sky. From Earth we see the Moon grow from a thin crescent to a full disk (or full moon) and then shrink back to a thin crescent again before vanishing for a few days. The Moon phases are produced by the alignment of the Moon and the Sun in the sky. The lit part of the Moon always points the way to the Sun.

What is the phase of the moon?

The lunar phase is the amount of the Moon you can see from Earth depending on how much of it is lit up by the sun. This amount changes each day.

What causes part of the Moon to be lit up?

The moon is illuminated because it reflects the light from the sun. The part of the moon facing the sun is lit up. The part facing away from the sun is in darkness.

What causes the different phases of the Moon?

The phases of the Moon depend on its position in relation to the Sun and Earth. As the Moon makes its way around the Earth, we see the bright parts of the Moon's surface at different angles. These are called "phases" of the Moon.

What are the different phases of the Moon called?

The phases of the moon work in a cycle starting with the new moon. A complete cycle of the Moon's phases from new Moon to full Moon takes about 29.5 days to completely cycle through all eight phases. This is known as a Lunar month

Phases of the Moon

text and image courtesy of Primary Homework Help